Rule 1.15-3 Records and Accountings
(a) Check Format. All general trust accounts, dedicated trust accounts, and fiduciary accounts must use business-size checks that contain an Auxiliary On-Us field in the MICR line of the check.
(b) Minimum Records for Accounts at Banks. The minimum records required for general trust accounts, dedicated trust accounts and fiduciary accounts maintained at a bank shall consist of the following:
(1) all records listing the source and date of receipt of any funds deposited in the account including, but not limited to, bank receipts, deposit slips and wire and electronic transfer confirmations, and, in the case of a general trust account, all records also listing the name of the client or other person to whom the funds belong;
(2) all canceled checks or other items drawn on the account, or digital images thereof furnished by the bank, showing the amount, date, and recipient of the disbursement, and, in the case of a general trust account, the client name, file number, or other identifying information of the client from whose balance each item is drawn, provided, that:
(A) digital images must be legible reproductions of the front and back of the original items with no more than six images per page and no images smaller than 1-3/16 x 3 inches; and
(B) the bank must maintain, for at least six years, the capacity to reproduce electronically additional or enlarged images of the original items or records related thereto upon request within a reasonable time;
(3) all instructions or authorizations to transfer, disburse, or withdraw funds from the trust account (including electronic transfers or debits), or a written or electronic record of any such transfer, disbursement, or withdrawal showing the amount, date, and recipient of the transfer or disbursement, and, in the case of a general trust account, also showing the name of the client or other person to whom the funds belong;
(4) all bank statements and other documents received from the bank with respect to the trust account, including, but not limited to notices of return or dishonor of any item drawn on the account against insufficient funds;
(5) in the case of a general trust account, a ledger containing a record of receipts and disbursements for each person or entity from whom and for whom funds are received and showing the current balance of funds held in the trust account for each such person or entity; and
(6) any other records required by law to be maintained for the trust account.
(c) Minimum Records for Accounts at Other Financial Institutions. The minimum records required for dedicated trust accounts and fiduciary accounts at financial institutions other than a bank shall consist of the following:
(1) all records listing the source and date of receipt of all funds deposited in the account including, but not limited to, depository receipts, deposit slips, and wire and electronic transfer confirmations;
(2) a copy of all checks or other items drawn on the account, or digital images thereof furnished by the depository, showing the amount, date, and recipient of the disbursement, provided, that the images satisfy the requirements set forth in Rule 1.15-3(b)(2);
(3) all instructions or authorizations to transfer, disburse, or withdraw funds from the account (including electronic transfers or debits) or a written or electronic record of any such transfer, disbursement, or withdrawal showing the amount, date, and recipient of the transfer or disbursement;
(4) all statements and other documents received from the depository with respect to the account, including, but not limited to notices of return or dishonor of any item drawn on the account for insufficient funds; and
(5) any other records required by law to be maintained for the account.
(d) Reconciliations of General Trust Accounts.
(1) Monthly Reconciliations. Each month, the balance of the trust account as shown on the lawyer's records shall be reconciled with the current bank statement balance for the trust account.
(2) Quarterly Reconciliations. For each general trust account, a reconciliation report shall be prepared at least quarterly. Each reconciliation report shall show all of the following balances and verify that they are identical:
(A) The balance that appears in the general ledger as of the reporting date;
(B) The total of all subsidiary ledger balances in the general trust account, determined by listing and totaling the positive balances in the individual client ledgers and the administrative ledger maintained for servicing the account, as of the reporting date; and
(C) The adjusted bank balance, determined by adding outstanding deposits and other credits to the ending balance in the monthly bank statement and subtracting outstanding checks and other deductions from the balance in the monthly statement.
(3) The lawyer shall review, sign, date, and retain a copy of the reconciliations of the general trust account for a period of six years in accordance with Rule 1.15-3(h).
(1) Each month, for each general trust account, dedicated trust account, and fiduciary account, the lawyer shall review the bank statement and cancelled checks for the month covered by the bank statement.
(2) Each quarter, for each general trust account and dedicated trust account, the lawyer shall review the statement of costs and receipts, client ledger, and cancelled checks of a random sample of representative transactions completed during the quarter to verify that the disbursements were properly made. The transactions reviewed must involve multiple disbursements unless no such transactions are processed through the account, in which case a single disbursement is considered a transaction for the purpose of this paragraph. A sample of three representative transactions shall satisfy this requirement, but a larger sample may be advisable.
(3) Each quarter, for each fiduciary account, the lawyer shall engage in a review as described in Rule 1.15-3(e)(2); however, if the lawyer manages more than ten fiduciary accounts, the lawyer may perform reviews on a random sample of at least ten fiduciary accounts in lieu of performing reviews on all such accounts.
(4) The lawyer shall take the necessary steps to investigate, identify, and resolve within ten days any discrepancies discovered during the monthly and quarterly reviews.
(5) A report of each monthly and quarterly review, including a description of the review, the transactions sampled, and any remedial action taken, shall be prepared. The lawyer shall sign, date, and retain a copy of the report and associated documentation for a period of six years in accordance with Rule 1.15-3(h).
(f) Accountings for Trust Funds. The lawyer shall render to the client a written accounting of the receipts and disbursements of all trust funds (i) upon the complete disbursement of the trust funds, (ii) at such other times as may be reasonably requested by the client, and (iii) at least annually if the funds are retained for a period of more than one year.
(g) Accountings for Fiduciary Property. Inventories and accountings of fiduciary funds and other entrusted property received in connection with professional fiduciary services shall be rendered to judicial officials or other persons as required by law. If an annual or more frequent accounting is not required by law, a written accounting of all transactions concerning the fiduciary funds and other entrusted property shall be rendered to the beneficial owners, or their representatives, at least annually and upon the termination of the lawyer’s professional fiduciary services.
(h) Minimum Record Keeping Period. A lawyer shall maintain, in accordance with this Rule 1.15, complete and accurate records of all entrusted property received by the lawyer, which records shall be maintained for at least the six (6) year period immediately preceding the lawyer's most recent fiscal year end.
(i) Retention of Records in Electronic Format. Records required by Rule 1.15-3 may be created, updated, and maintained electronically, provided:
(1) the records otherwise comply with Rule 1.15-3, to wit: electronically created reconciliations and reviews that are not printed must be reviewed by the lawyer and electronically signed using a "digital signature" as defined in 21 CFR 11.3(b)(5);
(2) printed and electronic copies of the records in industry-standard formats can be made on demand; and
(3) the records are regularly backed up by an appropriate storage device.
(j) Audit by State Bar. The financial records required by this Rule 1.15 shall be subject to audit for cause and to random audit by the North Carolina State Bar; and such records shall be produced for inspection and copying in North Carolina upon request by the State Bar.
History Note: Statutory Authority G.S. 84-23
Adopted by the Supreme Court: July 24, 1997
Amendments Approved by the Supreme Court: March 1, 2003; October 6, 2004; March 6, 2008; June 9, 2016; April 5, 2018; March 1, 2023