Title Insurance Tacking
Opinion rules that a lawyer may tack onto an existing title insurance policy.
Editor's Note: This opinion was originally published as RPC 99 (Revised).
In 1986, Lawyer A represented Mr. Jones in his purchase of a house and lot. A performed a full title search and obtained a title insurance policy for Jones and his lender with Title Insurance Company. In 1990, Jones contracts to sell the house and lot to Ms. Smith. Smith retains Lawyer B to represent her in the transaction. B obtains a copy of the policy Title Insurance Company issued on the property.
Lawyer B's title search for Smith consists of updating Lawyer A's search; B searches the title from 1986 to 1990. Title Insurance Company allows B to apply for title insurance based on the update, and holds A liable for any title defects during A's search period that result in a claim against Smith. A never represented Smith. A has no knowledge that A's work is serving as the basis for providing title insurance to Smith. Title company has never informed A that A's liability to title company extends beyond the time A's clients owned the property. Lawyer B has made no attempt to obtain A's permission to use A's base title.
May Lawyer B render a title opinion without having conducted a personal inspection of documents in the chain of title?
Yes. A lawyer may ethically render to a title insurance company a limited title opinion based upon a limited examination of the public records for the purpose of obtaining the issuance of a title insurance policy upon real property. The Rules of Professional Conduct do not require personal inspection of all documents in the chain of title so long as the lawyer rendering the opinion fully discloses to his or her client the precise nature of the service being rendered and the full extent thereof. The client should be advised that he or she should rely on the title insurance policy as to matters of title and not upon the attorney's examination of the public records. If the Title Insurance Company is willing to base its underwriting decision upon the fact that it or another title insurance company has previously issued a title insurance policy and Lawyer B's limited title opinion, that does not offend the Rules of Professional Conduct.
Since title insurers frequently omit exceptions in mortgagees' policies that would appear in owners' policies, tacking should be limited to tacking onto owners' policies.
May Lawyer B tack onto Lawyer A's base title without first obtaining Lawyer A's permission?
Lawyer B may ethically apply for the issuance of a title insurance policy on the basis of her limited title opinion and the fact that a title insurance policy has previously been issued. In so doing, the Rules of Professional Conduct would not require Lawyer B to obtain Lawyer A's permission. It is a question of law as to whether or not Lawyer A's liability to the title insurance company would continue after the issuance of the new policy. It is beyond the purview of this committee to make that determination. A possible solution to this problem might be for a lawyer to include in her opinion to the title insurer a disclaimer to the effect that the opinion is submitted only with respect to the current transaction and is not to be relied upon in any future transaction.
Must Lawyer B disclose to his or her client that B has updated the title and not performed a full title search? Must the disclosure be in writing? Must the disclosure be made before the client agrees to engage Lawyer B?
The disclosures referred to in the first opinion should be made by Lawyer B to the client prior to accepting employment. Rule 6(b)(2). The disclosures need not be in writing.