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Disposition of Escrowed Funds

Adopted: July 14, 1989

Opinion rules that an attorney serving as an escrow agent may not disburse in a manner not contemplated by the escrow agreement unless all parties agree.


Purchaser entered into a residential construction contract on March 27, 1985 with builder. When the transaction was closed on July 25, 1986, $1000 was placed in escrow with the closing attorney to be held until a list of items was corrected and then disbursed to the builder.

The builder has failed to correct the items although many requests have been made by the purchaser. From time to time the attorney has urged the builder to resolve the problems with the purchaser but no action has been taken.

The attorney has maintained an escrow account earning interest in the name of the purchaser and the purchaser has now requested that the attorney disburse the escrow account and interest to the purchaser in exchange for an indemnification from the purchaser to the attorney.

After the passage of three years' time on July 25, 1989, and after ninety (90) days' notice to both parties, the attorney would like to transfer the escrow account to the purchaser and assume any civil liability, provided the transfer can be made without violating any ethical standard.

Can the attorney ethically disburse the escrowed funds to the purchaser under such circumstances?


No. Funds received by a lawyer acting as an escrow agent must be maintained in accordance with the trust accounting provisions of Rules 10.1 and 10.2 of the Rules of Professional Conduct. A lawyer/escrow agent stands in a fiduciary relationship with all parties to the escrow and is obligated to treat each as a client with respect to the funds held in trust. Disbursement of escrowed funds is governed in the first instance by the terms of the escrow agreement which should inform the lawyer as to which "client" is entitled to receive payment and when and in what amounts such payment ought to be made. Rule 10.2 (E). If unforeseen circumstances arise for which no provision was made in the escrow agreement, such as those described in the inquiry, the disposition of the escrowed funds must be agreed upon by the parties or made the subject of a legally binding order prior to the lawyer's release of the escrowed funds. The lawyer may not, in concert with only one of the parties to the escrow agreement, determine that the funds will be disbursed to that party without the consent of the other interested party.

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