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Application of Trust Funds to Client's Fee Obligation

Adopted: April 15, 1988

Opinion rules that a law firm which has received money representing the refund of an appeal bond to a client owing substantial fees to the firm may apply the appeal bond refund to the fees if an agreement with the client would authorize the firm to do so.


Several years ago, law firm ABC represented client P in connection with the defense of a lawsuit filed against P. The trial resulted in an adverse verdict for client P, and P instructed the firm to perfect an appeal to the North Carolina Court of Appeals. The Court of Appeals affirmed the Superior Court judgment, and P has since paid the judgment.

After the appeal was affirmed by the Court of Appeals, client P still owed law firm ABC substantial fees. Those fees have not been paid and are unlikely to be satisfied. At a later date, the Office of the Clerk of Superior Court informed law firm ABC that the Clerk's Office was holding a check, which was the return of the appeal bond posted by client P. The money for the appeal bond was brought to law firm ABC's office by P at the time of the notice of appeal and was then deposited with the Clerk's Office by attorneys with firm ABC. Currently, law firm ABC is holding the refunded appeal bond money in its trust account.

May law firm ABC ethically apply the funds from the refund of the appeal bond to the fees still owed to the law firm, which are substantially in excess of the amount of the refund?


No, unless the agreement or understanding with the client concerning payment of fees and handling of money on behalf of the client authorizes the firm to take its fees or a portion of the fees owing to it from funds held for the client. The firm is required to hold all property or funds owing to its client in a designated trust account, separate from the firm's own funds. See Rules 10.1(a),(c). Funds may be disbursed from that trust account only to the client or in accordance with the client's instructions. See Rule 10.2(E). If a lawyer or firm reached an understanding with a client which would allow it to apply such funds as the refund of an appeal bond to the fees owing from the client to the firm, then disbursement of the refunded appeal bond funds could be made consistent with Rule 10.2(E) to the firm for payment of unsatisfied fee obligation.

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