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Communications with Unrepresented Prospective Defendant

Adopted: January 13, 1995

Opinion rules that in a letter to an unrepresented prospective defendant in a personal injury action, the plaintiff's lawyer may not give legal advice nor may he create the impression that he is concerned about or protecting the interests of the unrepresented prospective defendant.


Plaintiff and Defendant were involved in an automobile accident. Plaintiff retained Attorney to represent her. Attorney attempted to negotiate a settlement with Defendant's liability insurance carrier without success. Attorney decided to file suit. Prior to filing the complaint and serving the complaint on Defendant, Attorney wants to send Defendant, who is unrepresented, a letter. The letter will inform Defendant that Attorney represents Plaintiff in connection with the accident and that Attorney attempted to settle the case with the carrier. The letter will include the following statement:

Such a settlement would avoid litigation and would avoid even the possibility that you might have personal exposure for payment of part of a judgment, should you have insufficient liability insurance to cover a judgment.

The letter will also indicate that the insurance carrier either failed to negotiate or was unwilling to pay what Attorney believed to be a fair settlement and that "this means we must sue you on behalf of our client." The letter will advise Defendant to contact his insurance adjuster upon receiving the suit papers. The letter will then state the following:

Please understand that nothing personal is intended by this action. It has become necessary because we have been unable to settle the case with your insurance carrier.

The letter will recommend that Defendant consult a lawyer of his own choosing if Defendant has only minimum liability insurance coverage. The letter will conclude with the following statement:

Although the insurance company will hire a lawyer to defend this claim, his or her responsibility will be divided between you and the insurance company. Sometimes, your interests and that of the insurance company are not the same.

Will the content of this letter violate the Rules of Professional Conduct?


Yes. Rule 7.4(b) prohibits a lawyer from giving advice to a prospective opposing party who is not represented by a lawyer, other than the advice to secure counsel. In the letter, the advice to secure counsel is given not in an attempt by Attorney to avoid a conflict of interest on his own part but in the context of giving Defendant legal advice about a possible conflict of interest on the part of any lawyer who may be retained by the insurance carrier to defend Defendant. The letter also gives the unrepresented Defendant advice about the effect of a settlement on his personal liability.

More problematic is the general tenor of the letter which, through numerous statements such as "nothing personal is intended by this action," implies that Attorney is not only disinterested but he is actually concerned about and protecting the interests of Defendant. This is a clear violation of Rule 7.4(c) which states dealing on behalf of a client with a person who is not represented by counsel, [a lawyer shall not] state or imply that the lawyer is disinterested. When the lawyer knows or reasonably should know that the unrepresented person misunderstands the lawyer's role in the matter, the lawyer shall make reasonable efforts to correct the misunderstanding.

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