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Communication with Unrepresented Party

Adopted: October 24, 1986

Opinion rules that attorney may interview person with an adverse interest who is unrepresented and make a demand or propose a settlement.


Attorney A represents Client X, who was seriously injured in an automobile accident. To Attorney A, it appears that proposed defendant Y is clearly liable for the accident. Defendant Y is insured by Z insurance company for the minimum limits of $25,000.00. The injuries appear to be such as to justify a verdict or judgment at or above the $25,000.00 insurance limit. Negotiations have gone on between Attorney A and representatives of Company Z and have reached a standstill such that Attorney A feels he may be required to file suit against Defendant Y unless Company Z is forthcoming in paying their entire limits of liability. Investigation reveals that proposed Defendant Y has a modest estate although, given the exemption statutes in force, it may be questionable as to whether pursuing proposed Defendant Y individually would be fruitful.

May Attorney A ethically contact proposed Defendant Y and take a statement from him? Additionally, may Attorney A ethically suggest that Defendant Y demand or strongly urge Company Z to settle as long as the settlement is at or within policy limits, as it would appear to be in Y's interest to do so? May Attorney A alternatively suggest that proposed defendant Y contact an attorney and indicate that that attorney may give Y advice to demand that company Z pay their policy limits?


Rule 7.4 forbids a lawyer representing a client to communicate about the subject of the representation with a party the lawyer knows to be represented by another lawyer in the matter. However, there is no prohibition generally on communicating directly with an adverse party who is not represented by counsel. Thus, since it appears that proposed Defendant Y is not currently represented by counsel, Attorney A may communicate with him concerning proposed Defendant Y's statement about the automobile accident. Additionally, Rule 7.4(b) prohibits a lawyer from giving advice to a person not represented by a lawyer, other than advising that person to secure counsel, where the interests of the person have a reasonable possibility of being in conflict with the interests of the lawyer's client. Clearly, the interests of proposed Defendant Y have a possibility of being in conflict with the interests of Attorney A's Client X. Attorney A should not advise proposed Defendant Y to demand that insurance company Z settle the claim for the limits of the policy. However, he may certainly advise proposed Defendant Y to consult an attorney in connection with the claim and certainly may communicate with proposed Defendant Y, as an adverse party not represented by counsel, that his client's position is that Y is totally at fault and may make a demand or propose a settlement.

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