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Unclaimed Client Funds

Adopted: January 15, 1993

Opinion rules that an attorney may not donate a client's funds to a charity without the client's consent.

Inquiry #1:

When Attorney A undertakes to represent a client in regard to a traffic ticket, Attorney A tries to estimate the fines and costs and have the client pay that amount in advance. Sometimes the client is owed a refund. Attorney A sends a trust account check for the refund together with a receipt from the court. Sometimes the client never cashes the check and it stays on the books. After a certain period of time has elapsed, may the attorney stop payment on the check and contribute the money to a charity in the client's name but without the client's consent?

Opinion #1:

No. Since the attorney knows the identity of the client and presumably has a recent address for the client from the traffic ticket, the attorney should make every effort possible to get the client to cash the trust account check. Nothing else can be done with the client's money, without the client's consent, except escheating it to the treasurer pursuant to G.S. §116B as prescribed by Rule 10.2(h)(3)(a). G.S. §116B-31.5 provides a method for voluntary early delivery of funds to the treasurer under certain circumstances. See RPC 89.

Inquiry #2:

Attorney A is considering writing clients that the total costs of the citation will be a certain amount payable in advance, that any fines and costs will be paid out of that in full and that the balance will be his fee. Would that be ethical? Is there any better way to handle this problem?

Opinion #2:

No. A lawyer shall not enter into a contingent fee arrangement for representing a defendant in a criminal case. A contingent fee is one which is dependent on the outcome of the matter for which service is rendered. Further, a lawyer shall not acquire a proprietary interest in the subject matter of litigation he is conducting for a client. Rule 5.3(a). The lawyer may collect a fixed fee in advance and an amount estimated for the fines and costs, but the client must remain ultimately responsible for the actual expenses. Rule 2.6(c). See RPC 76.

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