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Conditional Delivery of Settlement Proceeds

Adopted: April 17, 1992

Opinion rules that deliberate release of settlement proceeds without satisfying conditions precedent is dishonest and unethical.

Inquiry #1:

Attorney D is regularly employed by an automobile liability insurance company to defend claims or litigation against its insureds, or against the insurance company when the claim is against other coverage that the company has provided (such as uninsured and underinsured motorist insurance coverage). When a settlement of any such claim or litigation is negotiated, Attorney D typically prepares the documents that he and his client or clients will require to conclude the settlement (the settlement documents). The settlement documents usually consist of a release, as well as a consent judgment, or a notice or a stipulation to effect a dismissal of any pending litigation.

Attorney D routinely sends the settlement documents to opposing counsel, Attorney P, with a letter which directs the manner in which the settlement is to be concluded with the use of the settlement documents by Attorney P.

Attorney D also sends the check or checks for the settlement proceeds to Attorney P with a letter stating that each check is conditionally delivered to Attorney P in trust and upon the condition that, while in some instances a check may be deposited in the trust account of Attorney P, no check may otherwise be delivered, and no proceeds from any check may be disbursed by Attorney P until the settlement documents have been executed in the manner directed in the letter and returned to Attorney D.

With respect to this conditional delivery of a settlement check or its proceeds, is Attorney D a "client" of Attorney P as defined by Rule 10.1(b)(4)?

Opinion #1:


Inquiry #2:

Is Attorney P required to render appropriate accountings to Attorney D with respect to the receipt, delivery or disbursement of a settlement check or its proceeds?

Opinion #2:


Inquiry #3:

Has Attorney P violated a rule if he delivers a settlement check or disburses any of the proceeds from a settlement check in violation of any condition under which Attorney P received the settlement check?

Opinion #3:

Yes. Whenever an attorney accepts conditional delivery of settlement proceeds from opposing counsel, the attorney implicitly agrees to abide by the prescribed conditions. Any deliberate failure to abide by those conditions, such as by disbursing the proceeds without first having obtained a signed release, would be dishonest and violative of Rule 1.2(c) which prohibits "conduct involving dishonesty, fraud, deceit or misrepresentation." It does not appear that such conduct would violate any of the provisions of Rules 10.1 or 10.2 since the obligations imposed by those rules are owed exclusively to clients and adverse counsel cannot properly be considered a client.

Inquiry #4:

Is Attorney D required by Rule 1.3(a) to inform the North Carolina State Bar if it comes to his attention that the settlement check has or may have been delivered, or that proceeds from the settlement check have or may have been disbursed, by Attorney P without meeting a condition required for any such delivery or disbursement?

Opinion #4:

Not necessarily. Rule 1.3(a) requires only the reporting of violations of the Rules of Professional Conduct that raise substantial questions as to the offending lawyer's "honesty, trustworthiness or fitness as a lawyer in other respects...." A willful failure on the part of the attorney to whom such funds were entrusted to satisfy the conditions of tender would raise a substantial question about the lawyer's trustworthiness and would necessitate a report of the apparent violation to the State Bar. If, however, it appears that the failure to satisfy the conditions of tender resulted from mistake, as opposed to knowing disregard, a report of the misconduct would not be required. It should be noted that Rule 1.3 does not, in any case, require disclosure of confidential information. Rule 1.3(c).

Inquiry #5:

With respect to any obligation Attorney D might have to inform the North Carolina State Bar of Attorney P's misconduct, does it make any difference whether the conditions upon which a settlement check was delivered to Attorney P are subsequently satisfied, or whether the settlement is otherwise subsequently concluded to the satisfaction of Attorney D and his client or clients?

Opinion #5:

If it appears to the attorney for the adverse party that Attorney P knowingly violated the conditions of tender, there would be a duty to report the apparent misconduct regardless of subsequent actions on the part of Attorney P to rectify the situation or otherwise satisfy Attorney D and his client.

Inquiry #6:

With respect to inquiries 4 and 5, does it make any difference whether Attorney D is also aware that Attorney P is or has been under investigation by the North Carolina State Bar for other alleged violations of Canon X or a rule promulgated thereunder?

Opinion #6:

The mere fact that Attorney D is aware that Attorney P is or has been under investigation by the State Bar for other alleged violations of the trust account rules would not necessarily compel a report of Attorney P's disbursement in violation of the conditions of tender. There may exist circumstances, however, in which an attorney becomes aware of a pattern of misconduct so pronounced as to warrant the conclusion that a similar violation was knowing and intentional. Under such circumstances, an attorney would have an obligation to report the misconduct to the State Bar.

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