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Preparation of Legal Documents at the Request of Another

Adopted: July 21, 2006

Opinion rules that, outside of the commercial or business context, a lawyer may not, at the request of a third party, prepare documents, such as a will or trust instrument, that purport to speak solely for principal without consulting with, exercising independent professional judgment on behalf of, and obtaining consent from the principal.

Inquiry:

This inquiry seeks a clarification of the scope of 2003 Formal Ethics Opinion 7 which provides that a lawyer may not prepare a power of attorney for the benefit of the principal at the request of another individual without consulting with, exercising independent professional judgment on behalf of, and obtaining consent from the principal. The opinion responds to an inquiry involving the preparation of a power of attorney, the conduct of the attorney-in-fact, and the appropriate actions of the lawyer who is asked to prepare the power of attorney. The opinion provides as follows:

When a lawyer is engaged by a person to render legal services to another person, the lawyer may not allow the third party to direct or regulate the lawyer's professional judgment in rendering such legal services. Rule 5.4(c). Similarly, Rule 1.8(f) provides that when a lawyer's services are being paid for by someone other than the client, the lawyer may not accept the compensation unless the client gives informed consent, there is no interference with the lawyer's independence of professional judgment or with the client-lawyer relationship, and confidential information relating to the representation of the client is protected…The situation described in this inquiry is distinguishable from a commercial or business transaction in which the lawyer is engaged by one person to prepare a power of attorney for execution by another person. Frequently, the power of attorney names the person requesting the legal services as the attorney-in-fact. If the document is being prepared to facilitate a specific task for the benefit of this person, such as the transfer of stock or real estate, the lawyer represents the person requesting the legal services and does not represent the signatory on the power of attorney. Thus, the purpose and goals of the engagement determine the identity of the client, not the signatory on the document prepared by the lawyer.

A lawyer may be asked by a client to prepare a document for the signature of a third party under circumstances that give rise to a reasonable belief that the client may be using the lawyer's services for an improper purpose such as actual or constructive fraud or the exertion of undue influence. If so, the lawyer may not assist the client and must decline or withdraw from the representation. Rule 1.2(d) and Rule 1.16(a)(1).

Does 2003 FEO 7 apply only to the preparation of a power of attorney upon the request of the prospective attorney-in-fact or does it apply broadly to the preparation of other legal documents that purport to speak solely for the principal (such as a will, an advance directive, or a trust instrument) upon the request of another person?

Opinion:

2003 Formal Ethics Opinion 7 applies to the preparation of all such legal documents for the principal upon the request of another. (A notable exception is the preparation of documents in a business or commercial context as described in the quotation from 2003 FEO 7 above.) A lawyer should not undertake the representation of a client or the preparation of a legal document on behalf of that client without having consulted with the client to obtain his informed consent to the representation and to determine whether he needs or wants the legal services requested. Further, the lawyer must exercise his independent professional judgment, and advise the client accordingly, with respect to the advisability of and the scope of the requested legal services.

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